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White River Rafting in Rishikesh

Rishikesh is a small town situation near the foothills of the Himalayas and has been much talked about due to its mystic value and adventure sports. As the popular saying in Rishikesh, the sun does not shine on you but rather it shines inside you. Rishikesh is considered as the rafting capital of India and it offers the rafting enthusiasts a plethora of avenues to test their rafting skills. The place assumes significance due to its natural design which suits both professional and first-time rafters.

Rafting in Rishikesh can be an unforgettable experience for the adrenaline crazy. Every year thousands of tourists flock the world capital of yoga to treat themselves with the yogic insights as well as dwell in the lap of nature. Over the years rafting has become a very popular sport for white water rafting along with host of other adventure sports. Gushing water from the Ganges is a sporty delight for the first timers and one can test their endurance by battling out the ferocity of the downstream water. Punching and muddling through the madness, most of the rafters feel enriched with renowned love for life and take back unforgettable memories to cherish for rest of their lives.

Rafting in Rishikesh as assumed a professional sport and every year thousands of tourist flock to take part of this mesmerising experience. White water rafting has different levels of difficulty and depending upon your training and capabilities; it has been formulated into different modules. While there is a professional rafting challenge waiting for the do or the die ones, small training are also imparted to the new born rafters. The

basic stretch starts from Brahmpuri which is 9 kilometres upstream from Rishikesh and has mostly mild rapids. It just takes two hour of your day to go through the trip down from Brahmpuri to Rishikesh.One can also do cliff jumping and body surfing during this stretch.

The complete stretch has been demarcated according to various levels of difficulties and ones professional capabilities. The Standard stretch starts from Shivpuri, 16 kilometres upstream from Rishikesh and has some famous Grade IV rapids like Roller Coaster & Golf Course. For the first timers, there is an artificially designed “recovery Pool” or still waters and this stretch lasts about 3 hours and is ideal for first-timers seeking adventure.

For the serious rafters, Rishikesh offers a challenging rafting experience. The stretch which starts from Marine Drive, 25 Kms upstream from Rishikesh is captivating and offer a plethora of challenging tasks such as cliff jumping points and high end rapids like cash flow, “Three blind mice” etc. This stretch takes about 4 hours and can be termed as the challenge of a lifetime.

If you are a rafting professional, the advanced stretch from “Kaudiyala” is the place. This stretch is the advanced stretch and has few of the greatest rapids termed as “The Wall”. The Wall is a Grade V rapid and most of the rafts get flipped in this rapid. It takes around 7 hours to complete this 36 kilometres long stretch.

The best time to visit Rishikesh for rafting is from September to November and from March to May. So next time you plan a visit to be a part of this splendid experience, hold your boots tight and be prepared for the experience of a lifetime!

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Brief History of Satellites and Communication Satellites

the fast brown dog
ntroduction and Brief History of Satellites

A satellite is any object that orbits another object (which is known as its primary). All masses that are part of the solar system, including the Earth, are satellites either of the Sun, or satellites of those objects, such as the Moon. It is not always a simple matter to decide which is the ‘satellite’ in a pair of bodies. Because all objects exert gravity, the motion of the primary object is also affected by the satellite. If two objects are ufficiently similar in mass, they are generally referred to as a binary system rather than a primary object and satellite. The general criterion for an object to be a satellite is that the center of mass of the two objects is inside the primary object. In popular usage, the term ‘satellite’ normally refers to an artificial satellite (a man-made object that orbits the Earth or another body).

In May, 1946, the Preliminary Design of an Experimental World-Circling Spaceship stated, “A satellite vehicle with appropriate instrumentation can be expected to be one of the most potent scientific tools of the Twentieth Century. The achievement of a satellite craft would produce repercussions comparable to the explosion of the atomic bomb…”

The space age began in 1946, as scientists began using captured German V-2 rockets to make measurements in the upper atmosphere. Before this period, scientists used balloons that went up to 30 km and radio waves to study the ionosphere. From 1946 to 1952, upper-atmosphere research was conducted using V-2s and Aerobee rockets. This allowed measurements of atmospheric pressure, density, and temperature up to 200 km. The U.S. had been considering launching orbital satellites since 1945 under the Bureau of Aeronautics of the United States Navy. The Air Force’s Project RAND eventually released the above report, but did not believe that the satellite was a potential military weapon; rather they considered it to be a tool for science, politics, and propaganda. Following pressure by the American Rocket Society, the National Science Foundation, and the International Geophysical Year, military interest picked up and in early 1955 the Air Force and Navy were working on Project Orbiter, which involved using a Jupiter C rocket to launch a small satellite called Explorer 1 on January 31, 1958.

On July 29, 1955, the White House announced that the U.S. intended to launch satellites by the spring of 1958.  https://schoolofhowto.net/ This became known as Project Vanguard. On July 31, the Soviets announced that they intended to launch a satellite by the fall of 1957 and on October 4, 1957 Sputnik I was launched into orbit, which triggered the Space Race between the two nations.

The largest artificial satellite currently orbiting the earth is the International Space Station, which can sometimes be seen with the unaided human eye.

Types of satellites

· Astronomical satellites: These are satellites used for observation of distant planets, galaxies, and other outer space objects.

· Communications satellites: These are artificial satellites stationed in space for the purposes of telecommunications using radio at microwave frequencies. Most communications satellites use geosynchronous orbits or near-geostationary orbits, although some recent systems use low Earth-orbiting satellites.

· Earth observation satellites are satellites specifically designed to observe Earth from orbit, similar to reconnaissance satellites but intended for non-military uses such as environmental monitoring, meteorology, map making etc. (See especially Earth Observing System.)

· Navigation satellites are satellites which use radio time signals transmitted to enable mobile receivers on the ground to determine their exact location. The relatively clear line of sight between the satellites and receivers on the ground, combined with ever-improving electronics, allows satellite navigation systems to measure location to accuracies on the order of a few metres in real time.

· Reconnaissance satellites are Earth observation satellite or communications satellite deployed for military or intelligence applications. Little is known about the full power of these satellites, as governments who operate them usually keep information pertaining to their reconnaissance satellites classified.

· Solar power satellites are proposed satellites built in high Earth orbit that use microwave power transmission to beam solar power to very large antenna on Earth where it can be used in place of conventional power sources.

· Space stations are man-made structures that are designed for human beings to live on in outer space. A space station is distinguished from other manned spacecraft by its lack of major propulsion or landing facilities — instead, other vehicles are used as transport to and from the station. Space stations are designed for medium-term living in orbit, for periods of weeks, months, or even years.

· Weather satellites are satellites that primarily are used to monitor the weather and/or climate of the Earth.

· Miniaturized satellites are satellites of unusually low weights and small sizes. New classifications are used to categorize these satellites: minisatellite (500-200 kg), microsatellite (below 200 kg), nanosatellite (below 10 kg).

Orbit types

Many times satellites are characterized by their orbit. Although a satellite may orbit at almost any height, satellites are commonly categorized by their altitude:

· Low Earth Orbit (LEO: 200 – 1200km above the Earth’s surface)

· Medium Earth Orbit (ICO or MEO: 1200 – 35286 km)

· Geosynchronous Orbit (GEO: 35786 km above Earth’s surface) and Geostationary Orbit ( zero inclination geosynchronous orbit). These orbits are of particular interest for communication satellites and will be discussed in detail later.

· High Earth Orbit (HEO: above 35786 km)

The following orbits are special orbits that are also used to categorize satellites:

· Molniya orbits: Is a class of a highly elliptic orbit. A satellite placed in this orbit spends most of its time over a designated area of the earth, a phenomenon known as apogee dwell. Molniya orbits are named after a series of Soviet/Russian Molniya communications satellites that have been using this class of orbits since the mid 1960s.

· Heliosynchronous or sun-synchronous orbit: A heliosynchronous orbit, or more commonly a sun-synchronous orbit is an orbit in which an object always passes over any given point of the Earth’s surface at the same local solar time. This is a useful characteristic for satellites that image the earth’s surface in visible or infrared wavelengths (e.g. weather, spy and remote sensing satellites).

· Polar orbit : A satellite in a polar orbit passes above or nearly above both poles of the planet (or other celestial body) on each revolution.

· Hohmann transfer orbit: For this particular orbit type, it is more common to identify the satellite as a spacecraft. In astronautics and aerospace engineering, the Hohmann transfer orbit is an orbital maneuver that moves a spacecraft from one orbit to another.

· Supersynchronous orbit or drift orbit : orbit above GEO. Satellites will drift in a westerly direction.

· Subsynchronous orbit or drift orbit: orbits close to but below GEO. Used for satellites undergoing station changes in an eastern direction.

Communication Satellites

A communications satellite (sometimes abbreviated to comsat) is an artificial satellite stationed in space for the purposes of telecommunications. Modern communications satellites use geosynchronous orbits, Molniya orbits or low Earth orbits.

For fixed services, communications satellites provide a technology complementary to that of fiber optic submarine communication cables. For mobile applications, such as communications to ships and planes satellite based communicationis only the viable means of communications as application of other technologies, such as cable, are impractical or impossible.

Early missions: The origin of satellite communication can be traced to an article written by Arthur C. Clarke in 1945. He suggested that a radio relay satellite in an equatorial orbit with a period of 24 hours would remain stationary with respect to earth’s surface and can be used for long-range radio communication, as it will over come the limitations imposed by earth curvature. Sputnik 1, The world’s first artificial (non communication) satellite, was launched on October 4, 1957. The first satellite to relay communications was Project SCORE in 1958, which used a tape recorder to store and forward voice messages. It was used to send a Christmas greeting to the world from President Eisenhower. NASA launched an Echo satellite in 1960. This 100-foot aluminized Mylar balloon served as a passive reflector for radio communications. Courier 1B, (built by Philco) also was launched in 1960, was the world’s first active repeater satellite. Given below are the details of milestones in satellite communcation history: –

· Herman Potocnik – describes a space station in geosynchronous orbit – 1928

· Arthur C. Clarke – proposes a station in geosynchronous orbit to relay communications and broadcast television – 1945

· Project SCORE – first communications satellite – 1958

· Echo I – first passive reflector satellite – August 1960

· Courier 1B – first active repeater satellite – October 1960

· Telstar – the first active direct relay satellite designed to transmit television and high-speed data communications. Telstar was placed in an elliptical orbit (completed once every 2 hours and 37 minutes), rotating at a 45° angle above the equator. July 1962

· Syncom – first communications satellite in geosynchronous orbit. Syncom 2 revolved around the earth once per day at constant speed, but because it still had north-south motion special equipment was needed to track it. 1963

· OSCAR-III – first amateur radio communications satellite – March 1965

· Molniya – first Soviet communication satellite, highly elliptic orbit – October 1965

· Early Bird – INTELSAT’s first satellite for commercial service – April 1965

· Orbita – first national TV network based on satellite television – November 1967

· Anik 1 – the first national satellite television system, Canada, – 1973

· Westar 1, the USA’s first geosynchronous communications satellite – April 1974

· Ekran – first serial Direct-To-Home TV communication satellite 1976

· Palapa A1 – first Indonesia communications satellite – July 8 1976

· TDRSS – first satellite designed to provide communications relay services for other spacecraft. – 1983

· Mars Global Surveyor – first communications satellite in orbit around another planet (Mars) – 1997

· Cassini spacecraft relays to Earth images from the Huygens probe as it lands on Saturn’s moon, Titan, the longest relay to date. — January 14, 2005

Depending on the need the communication satellites can be placed in various types of orbits. We discuss few common types: –

(a) Geostationary orbits Satellites: A satellite in a geostationary orbit appears to be in a fixed position to an earth-based observer. A geostationary satellite revolves around the earth at a constant speed once per day over the equator. The geostationary orbit is useful for communications applications because ground based antennae, which must be directed toward the satellite, can operate effectively without the need for expensive equipment to track the satellite’s motion. Especially for applications that require a large number of ground antennae (such as direct TV distribution), the savings in ground equipment can more than justify the extra cost and onboard complexity of lifting a satellite into the relatively high geostationary orbit.

The concept of the geostationary communications satellite was first proposed by Arthur C. Clarke, building on work by Konstantin Tsiolkovsky and on the 1929 work by Herman Potočnik (writing as Herman Noordung) Das Problem der Befahrung des Weltraums – der Raketen-motor. In October 1945 Clarke published an article titled “Extra-terrestrial Relays” in the British magazine Wireless World. The article described the fundamentals behind the deployment of artificial satellites in geostationary orbits for the purpose of relaying radio signals. Thus Arthur C. Clarke is often quoted as being the inventor of the communications satellite.

The first geostationary communications satellite was Anik 1, a Canadian satellite launched in 1972. The United States launched their own geostationary communication satellites afterward, with Western Union launching their Westar 1 satellite in 1974, and RCA Americom (later GE Americom, now SES Americom) launching Satcom 1 in 1975.
It was Satcom 1 that was instrumental in helping early cable TV channels such as WTBS (now TBS Superstation), HBO, CBN (now ABC Family), and The Weather Channel become successful, because these channels distributed their programming to all of the local cable TV headends using the satellite. Additionally, it was the first satellite used by broadcast TV networks in the United States, like ABC, NBC, and CBS, to distribute their programming to all of their local affiliate stations. The reason that Satcom 1 was so widely used is that it had twice the communications capacity of Westar 1 (24 transponders as opposed to Westar 1’s 12), which resulted in lower transponder usage costs.

By 2000 Hughes Space and Communications (now Boeing Satellite Systems) had built nearly 40 percent of the satellites in service worldwide. Other major satellite manufacturers include Space Systems/Loral, Lockheed Martin (owns former RCA Astro Electronics/GE Astro Space business), Northrop Grumman, Alcatel Space and EADS Astrium.

(b) Low-Earth-orbiting satellites: A low Earth orbit typically is a circular orbit about 150 kilometers above the earth’s surface and, correspondingly, a period (time to revolve around the earth) of about 90 minutes. Because of their low altitude, these satellites are only visible from within a radius of roughly 1000 kilometers from the sub-satellite point. In addition, satellites in low earth orbit change their position relative to the ground position quickly. So even for local applications, a large number of satellites are needed if the mission requires uninterrupted connectivity.

Low earth orbiting satellites are less expensive to position in space than geostationary satellites and, because of their closer proximity to the ground, require lower signal strength. So there is a trade off between the number of satellites and their cost. In addition, there are important differences in the onboard and ground equipment needed to support the two types of missions.

A group of satellites working in concert thus is known as a satellite constellation. Two such constellations which were intended for provision for hand held telephony, primarily to remote areas, were the Iridium and Globalstar. The Iridium system has 66 satellites. Another LEO satellite constellation, with backing from Microsoft entrepreneur Paul Allen, was to have as many as 720 satellites. It is also possible to offer discontinuous coverage using a low Earth orbit satellite capable of storing data received while passing over one part of Earth and transmitting it later while passing over another part. This will be the case with the CASCADE system of Canada’s CASSIOPE communications satellite.

(c) Molniya satellites: As mentioned, geostationary satellites are constrained to operate above the equator. As a consequence, they are not always suitable for providing services at high latitudes: for at high latitudes a geostationary satellite may appear low on (or even below) the horizon, affecting connectivity and causing multipathing (interference caused by signals reflecting off the ground into the ground antenna). The first satellite of Molniya series was launched on April 23, 1965 and was used for experimental transmission of TV signal from Moscow uplink station to downlink stations, located in Russian Far East, in Khabarovsk, Magadan and Vladivostok. In November of 1967 Soviet engineers created a unique system of national TV network of satellite television, called Orbita that was based on Molniya satellites.

Molniya orbits can be an appealing alternative in such cases. The Molniya orbit is highly inclined, guaranteeing good elevation over selected positions during the northern portion of the orbit. (Elevation is the extent of the satellite’s position above the horizon. Thus a satellite at the horizon has zero elevation and a satellite directly overhead has elevation of 90 degrees). Furthermore, the Molniya orbit is so designed that the satellite spends the great majority of its time over the far northern latitudes, during which its ground footprint moves only slightly. Its period is one half day, so that the satellite is available for operation over the targeted region for eight hours every second revolution. In this way a constellation of three Molniya satellites (plus in-orbit spares) can provide uninterrupted coverage.

Molniya satellites are typically used for telephony and TV services over Russia. Another application is to use them for mobile radio systems (even at lower latitudes) since cars traveling through urban areas need access to satellites at high elevation in order to secure good connectivity, e.g. in the presence of tall buildings.

 

 

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Brief History of Satellites and Communication Satellites

the fast brown dog
ntroduction and Brief History of Satellites

A satellite is any object that orbits another object (which is known as its primary). All masses that are part of the solar system, including the Earth, are satellites either of the Sun, or satellites of those objects, such as the Moon. It is not always a simple matter to decide which is the ‘satellite’ in a pair of bodies. Because all objects exert gravity, the motion of the primary object is also affected by the satellite. If two objects are ufficiently similar in mass, they are generally referred to as a binary system rather than a primary object and satellite. The general criterion for an object to be a satellite is that the center of mass of the two objects is inside the primary object. In popular usage, the term ‘satellite’ normally refers to an artificial satellite (a man-made object that orbits the Earth or another body).

In May, 1946, the Preliminary Design of an Experimental World-Circling Spaceship stated, “A satellite vehicle with appropriate instrumentation can be expected to be one of the most potent scientific tools of the Twentieth Century. The achievement of a satellite craft would produce repercussions comparable to the explosion of the atomic bomb…”

The space age began in 1946, as scientists began using captured German V-2 rockets to make measurements in the upper atmosphere. Before this period, scientists used balloons that went up to 30 km and radio waves to study the ionosphere. From 1946 to 1952, upper-atmosphere research was conducted using V-2s and Aerobee rockets. This allowed measurements of atmospheric pressure, density, and temperature up to 200 km. The U.S. had been considering launching orbital satellites since 1945 under the Bureau of Aeronautics of the United States Navy. The Air Force’s Project RAND eventually released the above report, but did not believe that the satellite was a potential military weapon; rather they considered it to be a tool for science, politics, and propaganda. Following pressure by the American Rocket Society, the National Science Foundation, and the International Geophysical Year, military interest picked up and in early 1955 the Air Force and Navy were working on Project Orbiter, which involved using a Jupiter C rocket to launch a small satellite called Explorer 1 on January 31, 1958.

On July 29, 1955, the White House announced that the U.S. intended to launch satellites by the spring of 1958. This became known as Project Vanguard. On July 31, the Soviets announced that they intended to launch a satellite by the fall of 1957 and on October 4, 1957 Sputnik I was launched into orbit, which triggered the Space Race between the two nations.

The largest artificial satellite currently orbiting the earth is the International Space Station, which can sometimes be seen with the unaided human eye.

Types of satellites

· Astronomical satellites: These are satellites used for observation of distant planets, galaxies, and other outer space objects.

· Communications satellites: These are artificial satellites stationed in space for the purposes of telecommunications using radio at microwave frequencies. Most communications satellites use geosynchronous orbits or near-geostationary orbits, although some recent systems use low Earth-orbiting satellites.

· Earth observation satellites are satellites specifically designed to observe Earth from orbit, similar to reconnaissance satellites but intended for non-military uses such as environmental monitoring, meteorology, map making etc. (See especially Earth Observing System.)

· Navigation satellites are satellites which use radio time signals transmitted to enable mobile receivers on the ground to determine their exact location. The relatively clear line of sight between the satellites and receivers on the ground, combined with ever-improving electronics, allows satellite navigation systems to measure location to accuracies on the order of a few metres in real time.

· Reconnaissance satellites are Earth observation satellite or communications satellite deployed for military or intelligence applications. Little is known about the full power of these satellites, as governments who operate them usually keep information pertaining to their reconnaissance satellites classified.

· Solar power satellites are proposed satellites built in high Earth orbit that use microwave power transmission to beam solar power to very large antenna on Earth where it can be used in place of conventional power sources.

· Space stations are man-made structures that are designed for human beings to live on in outer space. A space station is distinguished from other manned spacecraft by its lack of major propulsion or landing facilities — instead, other vehicles are used as transport to and from the station. Space stations are designed for medium-term living in orbit, for periods of weeks, months, or even years.

· Weather satellites are satellites that primarily are used to monitor the weather and/or climate of the Earth.

· Miniaturized satellites are satellites of unusually low weights and small sizes. New classifications are used to categorize these satellites: minisatellite (500-200 kg), microsatellite (below 200 kg), nanosatellite (below 10 kg).

Orbit types

Many times satellites are characterized by their orbit. Although a satellite may orbit at almost any height, satellites are commonly categorized by their altitude:

· Low Earth Orbit (LEO: 200 – 1200km above the Earth’s surface)

· Medium Earth Orbit (ICO or MEO: 1200 – 35286 km)

· Geosynchronous Orbit (GEO: 35786 km above Earth’s surface) and Geostationary Orbit ( zero inclination geosynchronous orbit). These orbits are of particular interest for communication satellites and will be discussed in detail later.

· High Earth Orbit (HEO: above 35786 km)

The following orbits are special orbits that are also used to categorize satellites:

· Molniya orbits: Is a class of a highly elliptic orbit. A satellite placed in this orbit spends most of its time over a designated area of the earth, a phenomenon known as apogee dwell. Molniya orbits are named after a series of Soviet/Russian Molniya communications satellites that have been using this class of orbits since the mid 1960s.

· Heliosynchronous or sun-synchronous orbit: A heliosynchronous orbit, or more commonly a sun-synchronous orbit is an orbit in which an object always passes over any given point of the Earth’s surface at the same local solar time. This is a useful characteristic for satellites that image the earth’s surface in visible or infrared wavelengths (e.g. weather, spy and remote sensing satellites).

· Polar orbit : A satellite in a polar orbit passes above or nearly above both poles of the planet (or other celestial body) on each revolution.

· Hohmann transfer orbit: For this particular orbit type, it is more common to identify the satellite as a spacecraft. In astronautics and aerospace engineering, the Hohmann transfer orbit is an orbital maneuver that moves a spacecraft from one orbit to another.

· Supersynchronous orbit or drift orbit : orbit above GEO. Satellites will drift in a westerly direction.

· Subsynchronous orbit or drift orbit: orbits close to but below GEO. Used for satellites undergoing station changes in an eastern direction.

Communication Satellites

A communications satellite (sometimes abbreviated to comsat) is an artificial satellite stationed in space for the purposes of telecommunications. Modern communications satellites use geosynchronous orbits, Molniya orbits or low Earth orbits.

For fixed services, communications satellites provide a technology complementary to that of fiber optic submarine communication cables. For mobile applications, such as communications to ships and planes satellite based communicationis only the viable means of communications as application of other technologies, such as cable, are impractical or impossible.

Early missions: The origin of satellite communication can be traced to an article written by Arthur C. Clarke in 1945. He suggested that a radio relay satellite in an equatorial orbit with a period of 24 hours would remain stationary with respect to earth’s surface and can be used for long-range radio communication, as it will over come the limitations imposed by earth curvature. Sputnik 1, The world’s first artificial (non communication) satellite, was launched on October 4, 1957. The first satellite to relay communications was Project SCORE in 1958, which used a tape recorder to store and forward voice messages. It was used to send a Christmas greeting to the world from President Eisenhower. NASA launched an Echo satellite in 1960. This 100-foot aluminized Mylar balloon served as a passive reflector for radio communications. Courier 1B, (built by Philco) also was launched in 1960, was the world’s first active repeater satellite. Given below are the details of milestones in satellite communcation history: –

· Herman Potocnik – describes a space station in geosynchronous orbit – 1928

· Arthur C. Clarke – proposes a station in geosynchronous orbit to relay communications and broadcast television – 1945

· Project SCORE – first communications satellite – 1958

· Echo I – first passive reflector satellite – August 1960

· Courier 1B – first active repeater satellite – October 1960

· Telstar – the first active direct relay satellite designed to transmit television and high-speed data communications. Telstar was placed in an elliptical orbit (completed once every 2 hours and 37 minutes), rotating at a 45° angle above the equator. July 1962

· Syncom – first communications satellite in geosynchronous orbit. Syncom 2 revolved around the earth once per day at constant speed, but because it still had north-south motion special equipment was needed to track it. 1963

· OSCAR-III – first amateur radio communications satellite – March 1965

· Molniya – first Soviet communication satellite, highly elliptic orbit – October 1965

· Early Bird – INTELSAT’s first satellite for commercial service – April 1965

· Orbita – first national TV network based on satellite television – November 1967

· Anik 1 – the first national satellite television system, Canada, – 1973

· Westar 1, the USA’s first geosynchronous communications satellite – April 1974

· Ekran – first serial Direct-To-Home TV communication satellite 1976

· Palapa A1 – first Indonesia communications satellite – July 8 1976

· TDRSS – first satellite designed to provide communications relay services for other spacecraft. – 1983

· Mars Global Surveyor – first communications satellite in orbit around another planet (Mars) – 1997

· Cassini spacecraft relays to Earth images from the Huygens probe as it lands on Saturn’s moon, Titan, the longest relay to date. — January 14, 2005

Depending on the need the communication satellites can be placed in various types of orbits. We discuss few common types: –

(a) Geostationary orbits Satellites: A satellite in a geostationary orbit appears to be in a fixed position to an earth-based observer. A geostationary satellite revolves around the earth at a constant speed once per day over the equator. The geostationary orbit is useful for communications applications because ground based antennae, which must be directed toward the satellite, can operate effectively without the need for expensive equipment to track the satellite’s motion. Especially for applications that require a large number of ground antennae (such as direct TV distribution), the savings in ground equipment can more than justify the extra cost and onboard complexity of lifting a satellite into the relatively high geostationary orbit.

The concept of the geostationary communications satellite was first proposed by Arthur C. Clarke, building on work by Konstantin Tsiolkovsky and on the 1929 work by Herman Potočnik (writing as Herman Noordung) Das Problem der Befahrung des Weltraums – der Raketen-motor. In October 1945 Clarke published an article titled “Extra-terrestrial Relays” in the British magazine Wireless World.  https://sports-passion.net/ The article described the fundamentals behind the deployment of artificial satellites in geostationary orbits for the purpose of relaying radio signals. Thus Arthur C. Clarke is often quoted as being the inventor of the communications satellite.

The first geostationary communications satellite was Anik 1, a Canadian satellite launched in 1972. The United States launched their own geostationary communication satellites afterward, with Western Union launching their Westar 1 satellite in 1974, and RCA Americom (later GE Americom, now SES Americom) launching Satcom 1 in 1975.
It was Satcom 1 that was instrumental in helping early cable TV channels such as WTBS (now TBS Superstation), HBO, CBN (now ABC Family), and The Weather Channel become successful, because these channels distributed their programming to all of the local cable TV headends using the satellite. Additionally, it was the first satellite used by broadcast TV networks in the United States, like ABC, NBC, and CBS, to distribute their programming to all of their local affiliate stations. The reason that Satcom 1 was so widely used is that it had twice the communications capacity of Westar 1 (24 transponders as opposed to Westar 1’s 12), which resulted in lower transponder usage costs.

By 2000 Hughes Space and Communications (now Boeing Satellite Systems) had built nearly 40 percent of the satellites in service worldwide. Other major satellite manufacturers include Space Systems/Loral, Lockheed Martin (owns former RCA Astro Electronics/GE Astro Space business), Northrop Grumman, Alcatel Space and EADS Astrium.

(b) Low-Earth-orbiting satellites: A low Earth orbit typically is a circular orbit about 150 kilometers above the earth’s surface and, correspondingly, a period (time to revolve around the earth) of about 90 minutes. Because of their low altitude, these satellites are only visible from within a radius of roughly 1000 kilometers from the sub-satellite point. In addition, satellites in low earth orbit change their position relative to the ground position quickly. So even for local applications, a large number of satellites are needed if the mission requires uninterrupted connectivity.

Low earth orbiting satellites are less expensive to position in space than geostationary satellites and, because of their closer proximity to the ground, require lower signal strength. So there is a trade off between the number of satellites and their cost. In addition, there are important differences in the onboard and ground equipment needed to support the two types of missions.

A group of satellites working in concert thus is known as a satellite constellation. Two such constellations which were intended for provision for hand held telephony, primarily to remote areas, were the Iridium and Globalstar. The Iridium system has 66 satellites. Another LEO satellite constellation, with backing from Microsoft entrepreneur Paul Allen, was to have as many as 720 satellites. It is also possible to offer discontinuous coverage using a low Earth orbit satellite capable of storing data received while passing over one part of Earth and transmitting it later while passing over another part. This will be the case with the CASCADE system of Canada’s CASSIOPE communications satellite.

(c) Molniya satellites: As mentioned, geostationary satellites are constrained to operate above the equator. As a consequence, they are not always suitable for providing services at high latitudes: for at high latitudes a geostationary satellite may appear low on (or even below) the horizon, affecting connectivity and causing multipathing (interference caused by signals reflecting off the ground into the ground antenna). The first satellite of Molniya series was launched on April 23, 1965 and was used for experimental transmission of TV signal from Moscow uplink station to downlink stations, located in Russian Far East, in Khabarovsk, Magadan and Vladivostok. In November of 1967 Soviet engineers created a unique system of national TV network of satellite television, called Orbita that was based on Molniya satellites.

Molniya orbits can be an appealing alternative in such cases. The Molniya orbit is highly inclined, guaranteeing good elevation over selected positions during the northern portion of the orbit. (Elevation is the extent of the satellite’s position above the horizon. Thus a satellite at the horizon has zero elevation and a satellite directly overhead has elevation of 90 degrees). Furthermore, the Molniya orbit is so designed that the satellite spends the great majority of its time over the far northern latitudes, during which its ground footprint moves only slightly. Its period is one half day, so that the satellite is available for operation over the targeted region for eight hours every second revolution. In this way a constellation of three Molniya satellites (plus in-orbit spares) can provide uninterrupted coverage.

Molniya satellites are typically used for telephony and TV services over Russia. Another application is to use them for mobile radio systems (even at lower latitudes) since cars traveling through urban areas need access to satellites at high elevation in order to secure good connectivity, e.g. in the presence of tall buildings.

 

 

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Reasons Why You Might Get Kicked Off Facebook

Facebook just like any other social site is regulated by strict but very easy to follow user policies. It’s very rare to see or hear that somebody has been restricted access to Facebook, but it happens all the same. Some of our innocent actions put our accounts in jeopardy sometimes leading to total ban. Failing to adhere to Facebook terms of use will definitely provoke the administration to put our accounts offline. From the Facebook principals, statement of rights and responsibilities, anybody who joins the site is governed by their user policy and privacy terms. It also gives guidelines on data use, and how we receive and share information or finding others online.

Here are some of the deadliest reasons which may lead to the shut down of our accounts.

• The minimum age allowed for Facebook users is thirteen years. People lie about their age just to get access, but this is also against the rules and once discovered, your account will no longer be operational.
• Use of fake names or other people’s names, aliases, impersonating or imagined characters is also a good reason to deny you access to your account.
• Other people may prefer having multiple accounts, may be with an intention of separating personal issues and professional ones. This might sound like a good idea but it is technically not allowed.
• Your account should not promote content related to alcohol, illicit drugs, and fire arms, hate speech or violate other people’s intellectual property rights. Pornographic material is also not allowed.
• Forming of illegal pyramid schemes, gambling or any illegal cash generating venture through the site should be a good reason to see you out of the site.
• For application developers, the site directs that they create better user experience that helps diversify their interests. Application developers should not seek to exploit Facebook users’ private information including usernames and passwords. Facebook users’ data can not be transferred to any kind of advertising network be it direct or indirect. Most of the application developers’ rules and regulations fall under the general Facebook user policy.

These are just some of the reasons which often lead to termination of Facebook services. Facebook user policies outline more of what is required of users be it social or commercial. For more information please visit Facebook home page and click on terms. Section number fourteen talks about termination and gives the summary for better understanding.https://3plus2five.com/

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3 Reasons to Get BlackBerry Curve Insurance Today

We’re living in a day and age when SmartPhones like the BlackBerry Curve are nothing less than a societal norm. Once upon a time, they were the https://www.aliasinsurance.com/ accessories of the rich or the trendy, but now they are considered an absolute necessity. No wonder we’re seeing them in the hands of everybody from the 10-year-old down the street to your best friend at the pub.

However, what people still fail to realize is that their BlackBerrys are an investment. As such, they really need to be properly protected by a decent BlackBerry Curve insurance plan. You wouldn’t dream of driving your car without insurance, would you? Why on earth would you consider buying a BlackBerry without buying BlackBerry Curve insurance as well?

1. Your existing home contents insurance won’t cover you nearly as well as BlackBerry Curve insurance will.

There are an awful lot of people out there who simply assume that they don’t need proper BlackBerry Curve insurance because they already have a household items policy in place. They figure that if they lose or break their phone, that they can simply file a claim under that and all is well.

While that may appear to be the case on the surface, this is actually far from the situation in actuality. Not only will merely a single claim cost you your no-claims bonus attached to your policy, but you will be expected to cover a larger portion of the replacement cost of your phone as well. When we’re talking about a BlackBerry, that can wind up costing you a pretty penny! The best option really is a plan made specifically to cover the BlackBerry Curve and nothing else.

2. Even careful people damage or lose their phones.

A lot of people make the mistake of thinking they really just don’t need BlackBerry Curve insurance because they’re simply too careful with their things to make it a necessity. Well, they should think again. Even careful people can accidentally leave their BlackBerry on the train or drop it in the toilet by accident and if you don’t have phone insurance, you can bet Murphy’s Law will dictate that this will happen to you!

Really, it’s better to be safe than sorry. For a mere pittance, you can rest easy knowing your phone is covered should anything happen to it. Otherwise, you’ll be stuck paying out of pocket to replace your device and most of us can’t afford that these days.

3. Only BlackBerry Curve insurance will thoroughly cover you against theft.

Don’t make the mistake of thinking your manufacturer’s warranty doubles as an insurance policy. It only protects you in the event of device malfunction and for a limited period of time. It will not protect you against one of the most common reasons people lose their BlackBerrys. Top-of-the-line phones like these have a tendency to catch people’s eyes and wind up stolen. However, with BlackBerry Curve insurance in your corner, you’re covered against theft as well.

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Graduated and Obtained Your Teacher Certification

Graduating from college is no doubt exciting. That feeling that you are finally coming to the end of many years of continuous learning and moving on to applying what you have learned is elating. But the excitement is often tempered by a tinge of fear about just how well you will manage the transition from student to teacher. https://kolkataff.org/

Don’t feel that you need to rush though. Once you have your certification, make your career decisions carefully depending on what interests you and what your career objectives are.  Of course, there are also those graduates who have been completing their studies part time since they were already employed full time. For such individuals, the challenge may not seem as large as those facing the beginning of their professional lives. However, they will still need to reevaluate their career objectives and make changes to conform to their newly acquired teacher certification.

If you are joining the teaching job market for the first time, you will need to evaluate your career options in the context of your teaching certification and area of expertise. At the beginning, the range of choices to make may seem vast and can feel a little overwhelming. But as you zero in on the areas that are most attractive to you, the decision will start to look easier. The best approach is often to begin this analysis before you graduate. This will buy you significant lead time which will see you joining the job market more quickly.

If you already have a job when you graduate, do not limit yourself to thinking about your career only in the context of the opportunities available at your current place of employment. Of course you could use your certification to ask for a promotion or a pay rise, but there is no harm in looking for other opportunities if you think your new certification is unlikely to find relevance in your current teaching position. Transitioning is often easier to do than looking for a job afresh, since you already have a fall back plan in the event that the new job you are looking for does not work out.

Getting a teaching job immediately after graduation is never assured. You could register with a credible recruitment agency that can help you look for a job faster, though. Such agencies have contacts with key educational institutions and will sometimes be among the first to know when a vacancy arises. You will still have to develop a detailed resume and cover letter, and then distribute them to both the recruitment agencies and directly to potential employers that are looking for teachers with your level of education and experience. After submitting your resume to the institutions you are interested in, follow up with a phone call or email to show that you are interested in the position.

Looking for a teaching position after your graduation is serious and hard work, and the task can make you feel frustrated. The key to starting off on the right foot is to begin with an accomplishment-based, keyword-rich, visually-appealing, resume and cover letter. When you have fine-tuned these marketing documents make sure you keep applying for jobs – remember, a school district is not going to come looking for you. Be active in your job search, and eventually you will find the job that you have been looking for.

Candace Davies, Owner of A+ Resumes for Teachers is a Global Career Management Professional dedicated to assisting educators worldwide leverage their strengths, accomplishments, and unique selling points to capture their dream career. Her team has successfully assisted 3500+ education professionals by transforming their talents into concise documents that secure numerous interviews. Please visit her at

 

 

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Career As a Substitute Teacher

Teaching has always been among the most responsible jobs. None of the classes can be left unattended as the absence of any teacher can adversely affect student’s studies. To avoid any such adverse conditions, these days many schools and colleges are looking for substitute teachers. Teachers can be absent because of many reasons such as illness, pregnancy or maternity leave, educational leaves of absence, workshop attendance requirements etc. This is why these replacement teachers are always in the requirement as without them, the education system can suffer a lot.

Generally these replacement teachers are not permanent or full-time employees. Actually, they fill the temporary vacancy of teachers when the need arises. While reporting for work, a substitute teacher is asked to take over few or all the duties of the absent teacher. https://onlineitpark.net/ It is important to understand that once a teacher is placed on a school’s roster, she or he may be asked to tutor any grade, though the duration of educating students may be of very short notice. Adding to this, a replacement teacher may further be asked to complete the absent teacher’s lesson plan. Besides this, the duties may further include providing instruction to students, giving work assignments, correcting students’ work and updating attendance records. Work responsibility of a stand-in teacher may also include ensuring the safety of students, school property and proper maintenance of discipline in the classroom.

Career Prospects
Since there is always a need of substitute teachers, they are employed straight by private schools and public school districts. Nevertheless, there are many areas where employment agencies have appointed temporary staffers to play the role of replacement teachers. If we carefully look at the job prospects of these alternate teachers, it is expected that the vacancies might go up about as fast as an average of all other professions. As per recent study made by Utah State University, around 274,000 people work as replacement or standby teachers per day in the United States, but still many school districts are struggling with the severe lack of available and proper trained substitute teachers. This current scenario clearly indicates that in the next few years as the shortage is expected to grow, the demand of replacement teacher in turn may also increase. Standby teachers with formal education and extensive experience are going to see the maximum rise in job opportunities.

Salary Outlook
An average annual salary for replacement teacher is $38,000. Adding to this, as per the report of The National Substitute Teachers Alliance, the national median pay for Substitute Teachers is $105 per day. Nonetheless, median annual salary of these standby teachers generally differs depending on different factors like employer, job location, experience or an educational background.

Education Requirements
The district or state may not ask for any educational basics to be a stand-in teacher. However, taking a high school diploma that is two years of post-secondary education, a bachelor’s degree in any subject with completed coursework in education or even a formal teaching license can be very useful to get a teacher job. In many states, there is a systematic application procedure that might call you for health screenings and immunizations. Apart from this, a state might give a temporary license particularly for replacement teachers, offer training manuals or provide compulsory training sessions to arrange new replacements for the classroom.

Today there is a high need of standby teachers. In fact, in recent times many districts and states of United States have implemented different programs to try to attract replacement teachers. Recently, a bill has been initiated in the House which actually aims in providing funds for training substitute teachers. It is definitely, one of the few professions that have the better scope for professional development. As a substitute teacher, your guidance and teaching to students can play a vital role in their academic performance.

 

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The Rare Earth Hypothesis

one quick silver dog
It’s been pointed out by others, and based on my readings I tend to have to agree, that astronomers (physical scientists) tend to be much more optimistic and supportive of the notion that advanced life forms in the Universe (extraterrestrial intelligence) are a dime-a-dozen relative to biologists (life scientists), who hedge their bets and who it must be said are presumably better qualified to pass judgments. So, taking things from a more biological perspective, what’s what?

For starters, our Universe is a Goldilocks Universe in that the fundamental laws, relations and principles of physics unite in such a way as to be ultimately bio-friendly. If the Universe wasn’t bio-friendly, we wouldn’t be here to comment on that. That’s not to say however, in relative contrast, that many (most) parts of the Universe aren’t overly bio-friendly. You’d be hard-pressed to survive and thrive in the depths of a stellar core, heading down a Black Hole, vacationing on the surface of a White Dwarf or in the hard vacuum of space itself. So, overall the physics of the Universe displays the physics of a Goldilocks Universe, but actually very few addresses within an overall Goldilocks Universe are really, by our definition, Goldilocks. However, starting with bio-friendly physics, where do we go from that point? Well, physics begat inorganic chemistry. That’s step number one, and clearly that’s easy because there’s an awful lot of inorganic chemistry in our Universe.

Going from inorganic chemistry to organic chemistry isn’t difficult either. Interstellar space is full of dust and gases made up of organic chemicals; ditto many of the planets and moons within our solar system (i.e. – Titan, a moon of Saturn) have organics being part and parcel of their composition, and comets, asteroids and meteors too can contain organic compounds.

Judging by how quickly organic chemistry turned into biochemistry (the origin of life) on the early Planet Earth, it’s not difficult to generate simple proto-cellular to unicellular life forms if the conditions (adequate energy, temperatures, environments) are Goldilocks conditions.

Yet life, even microbial life, is still very, very complex (try making a microbe from scratch if you doubt it). The fact that life arose from scratch on Earth within a very, very short span of geological time after the planet formed is a bit suspect IMHO. fashionhikes But what if Earth were seeded by microbial life forms already in existence from space (or deliberately seeded by extraterrestrials as the Nobel Prize winner Francis Crick has proposed)? Now I realize that just puts off the origin of life question to another time(s) and place(s). However, given the vastness of the cosmos is far greater than that of our finite globe, and given that the cosmos existed for vastly longer periods of time before our sun, solar system and home planet came into existence, such additional time and space easily turns the improbable into a near certainty. And once established somewhere, then life could spread throughout that time and space, until it reached our young planet.

Earth arose billions of years after the universe and our galaxy had evolved, ample time for life to have arisen elsewhere, and seed the early Earth. This is the concept of panspermia. We know that comets, meteors, and the cosmic dust of outer space are chock-o-block full of complex organic molecules. We know that simple terrestrial life can survive the outer space environment if suitably shielded – and it doesn’t take much to do the shielding. We know that surface bits from planets/moons can be ejected into space, carry a cargo of microbes, and land on another planet, even eons later with the microbes still viable. Of course 99.999% of all such microbial life will be doomed to forever wander in space or crash onto a cold, surface of a planet with no atmosphere or water, or plunge into a star, etc. But, sheer numbers will insure that now and again some microbes will land on a hospitable abode and be fruitful and multiple and evolve. The interesting bit is that if then, then now. And thus panspermia will be happening today. Certainly some meteorites which have impacted Earth have inside them ‘organized elements’ suggestive of microbial structures – the Murchison Meteorite from Australia is one such stone. The problem is terrestrial contamination as there are often lengthy time periods between their fall and subsequent discovery. As an aside, if Fred Hoyle & Chandra Wickramasinghe are correct (and I believe they are), microbes (bacteria and viruses) impacting Earth today are largely responsible for some select or various disease epidemics and pandemics, past present, and no doubt future.

On Earth, microbes rule, OK? The biomass of all the bacteria, etc. put together easily equals the biomass of every other multicellular plant and animal added together. And microbes can live in environments where multicellular critters fear to tread and often can’t: from the coldest terrestrial environments, up to the near boiling temperatures, from deep underground to the heights of the atmosphere, from inside water-cooled nuclear reactors and the interior of rocks, to intensely saline, acidic and alkaline environments, to ecosystems where the sun never shines, like the abyssal depths.

They can even survive outer space. Bacteria survived on the surface of the Moon – on Surveyor Three. This was possibly the most significant discovery of the entire Apollo Moon program and it hardly even rated a mention. Astronauts from the Apollo 12 mission brought back to Earth parts of the unmanned Surveyor Three Lunar Lander. Terrestrial bacteria on those parts survived the lunar vacuum, solar radiations (UV, etc.), the massive temperature extremes, and lack of water and nutrients. Experiments since then in low earth orbit have confirmed that given just minimal shielding, bacteria can boldly go!

You’d be aware of how difficult it is to totally sterilize something, be it hospital equipment or a spacecraft bound for a Martian landing. They’re tough – have you ever read about a mass extinction event where a bacterial species, unlike say the multicellular dinosaurs, went poof? Microbes are easy to transport. They can be blasted off the surface of the Earth, shielded from radiation by the debris, and survive to land on another world and be fruitful and multiply. There’s little doubt that somewhere way out there, terrestrial bacteria have hitched a ride to the stars, bolding going where lots of microbes have gone before! Translated, I firmly expect that the universe is teaming with life in all sorts of places. The less than glamorous catch is that LGM is not going to stand for Little Green Men, but Little Green Microbes.

But now we come to our first and major bottleneck.

It took 0.5 billion years for the unicellular origin of life on Earth, or for microbes from space to take root on Earth, but then it then took nearly another 3.5 billion years between the appearance of that ‘simple’ single proto-cell life form and the eventual evolution and the resultant Cambrian explosion of multicellular (complex) life forms. For some reason(s), it appears to be biologically difficult to go from the simple single cell to a complex multicellular organism based on the only example we have to judge such things. Probably the overall obstacle to the early quick-smart establishment of multicellular (complex) life is that heretofore microbes (single cells) were 100% self-sufficient generalists. Complex organisms require the evolution of single cells to give up being generalists, become specialists, and work as part of a team. That degree of organization apparently takes lots of time, especially to the stage of where it can leave a large fossil presence, if it takes place at all.

Once you get to the multicellular stage, and in order to evolve further, well the trick is to survive, for the Universe is a dangerous place.

Planetary environments tend to be dangerous and rarely stable, and thus you need a lot of factors in place to ensure that even simple life even survives the long term and get the chance to evolve into multicellular life. Or, if you have evolved multicellular life, the odds are pretty good it’s going to get the Big “E” – Extinction. I mean complex life is very vulnerable to environmental forces. A tornado probably isn’t going to bother bacteria, but it sure could tear you apart. That’s not to say bacteria can survive everything the cosmos can throw at them, but when nasties come, you stand a better chance of survival if you’re a microbe. So, in order to get to the first proto multicellular critter, and from that to us, you need a lot of Goldilocks factors operating in your favour.

But there are apparently just too many planetary Goldilocks factors at play to grant the probability that complex, multicellular, animal, life is common throughout the cosmos. You need to be in a quiet part of the galaxy – no nearby supernovas, black holes to suck you in, gamma ray bursters, etc. You need a long lived stable single star. You need a gravitationally stable solar system so that planets are not gravitationally disturbed out of their orbit and either plunged into the parent star or cast out of the parent system altogether. You should have a good Jupiter(s) to absorb and/or gravitational deflect comets and asteroids that would otherwise slam into your otherwise environmentally-friendly planet causing havoc to established life forms. You need a planet that’s in a pretty circular orbit, one that doesn’t stray too close or too far from the habitable zone surrounding the parent star. The planet must have a fairly stable temperature range over geologic time periods, and so you must have an atmosphere, and thus has to be massive enough to retain an atmosphere, without being so massive that you end up with a brown dwarf – a quasi-stellar body. The axis can’t have an extreme tilt, and it would greatly assist if the planet had a large moon around it to assist its long term stability. You need some sort of plate tectonics to ensure land building and the recycling of materials. If it’s intelligence, with technology you seek, the planet can’t be a water world. The planet must have formed in a region abundant in the heavier chemical elements (oxygen, sulphur, carbon, silicon, nitrogen, various metals, etc.). When you take all those factors (and more) into account, the number of suitable abodes where simple life can slowly evolve into complex life decreases rather quickly. And there’s no guarantee that there is really any directed purpose to evolution in that evolution doesn’t require simple life to become complex life. Survival and leaving offspring is what it’s all about, and if single cell critters do that what more is needed?

One note about planetary disasters or catastrophes is that these cut both ways. They can’t be frequent enough and/or large enough to wipe out the entire biosphere in total, especially the biosphere comprised of complex life forms, but on the other hand, infrequent small disasters can spur on evolutionary change by opening up environmental niches, but depending on who or what you are, when you are, and where you are, a disaster can be a double edged sword. I mean if you’re a T-Rex sixty five million years ago, its bad news. On the other hand, without the bad news for T-Rex, we wouldn’t be here, so for us, an asteroid impact 65 million years ago turned out to be good news!

It’s also difficult to naturally transport complex life around the galaxy, unlike microbial life. If a meteor hit Earth and blasted a chunk of terra firma off towards Mars, pity the poor cockroach going along for the ride. Cockroaches are tough, but not that tough. And even if a cockroach did make it alive to the surface of, say Mars, it wouldn’t survive long.

Anyway, once you have multicellular critters that have survived and thrived in a reasonably stable part of the Universe over many generations, will they evolve intelligence? I mean finding an extraterrestrial equivalent of a trilobite is all well and good, but we want to find beings more like ourselves.

IMHO, intelligence, the ability to figure things out, has evolutionary survival value and will tend to be selected for, and thus over time, there will tend to have evolved life forms with ever higher IQ’s. Here on Earth, just about all mammals and birds, and some exceptional invertebrates (the cephalopods like squid and the octopus), have reasonable IQ’s at least when compared to bacteria, plants, insects, fish, etc. Of course just as some kinds of organisms are faster than others, or have keener senses of sight or smell or hearing, not all advanced organisms are going to end up equal in the IQ stakes. But, the fact remains, the ability to think, to figure things out, can only increase your odds of survival and leaving behind more offspring.

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Microdermabrasion For Acne Scars – Is it the Right Choice For You?

For those people who have are suffering from severe acne scars, it may be a better idea to spend money on a high end treatment that promises greater results in a short space of time. If you happen to be in that category and money isn’t an issue, then you should consider microdermabrasion for acne scars as your treatment of choice. Based on the feedback from many people who have tried it, you will probably get very good results, especially if you have acne scarring you just can’t seem to get rid of.

Microdermabrasion is a cosmetic skincell pro   procedure that is popular in doctor’s offices, medical spas and day spas, and is used to get rid of the outermost “dead” surface of the skin. This is done by partially or completely removing the skin layer(s) by light abrasion. There is really very little pain with microdermabrasion procedures and patients require no anesthetic for the duration of the procedure. It’s also important to note that people with raised scars usually have better results from microdermabrasion compared to people with sunken scars. Where acne scarring is concerned, microdermabrasion must be repeated periodically for noticeable, long lasting results.

Microdermabrasion for acne scars is generally performed by a trained specialist; usually an aesthetician or a nurse. The procedure generally lasts about 30 minutes, and it is recommended that people get between 5 to 12 treatments spaced out a few weeks in between. Typically, a session can cost from $75 to $100, pushing up the grand total for the treatments to anywhere from $375 to $1200 depending on the location and specialist chosen. If saving money is a goal, be sure to call around and get some price quotes for microdermabrasion for acne scars before making your decision.

There are a couple types of microdermabrasion treatments available, including crystal dermabrasion and diamond dermabrasion. With crystal dermabrasion, crystal particles are blasted onto the surface of the skin to act as an exfoliating agent and get rid of the dead skincells. With diamond dermabrasion, a diamond tipped tool is used against the surface of the skin to remove the dead layers. As far as microdermabrasion for acne scars goes, both techniques are equally effective. It really just depends on the severity of your case and what technique is available at the clinic or spa you choose.

Microdermabrasion for acne scars is definitely the remedy you should choose if you are NOT restricted by a budget and have the patience to handle 5 to 12 treatments done over the course of a few weeks. If you are on a budget and numerous microdermabrasion treatments are too much of a hassle for you, well, there are still plenty of other acne scar treatments you can turn to.

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Business Management Services Can Handle Your Business Tax Preparation

California Tax Consulting services are available to business owners from Business Management Services groups. By taking advantage of tax credits, including hiring and environmental tax credits, your California-based company can save money at tax time, as can be verified by California Tax Consulting service providers. To learn more about 2010 Tax Changes and Enterprise Zone Tax Credits and how they can affect your tax bill, California corporation owners can look for Business Management Services  Managed Cyber Security that have a lineup of certified public accountants with a range of experience in all of the areas that you will need. This will include tax laws, Enterprise Zone tax credits, state and federal tax credits available to California corporations, hiring tax credits and more.

Most business owners do not have the time or the expertise to become well-grounded in complicated California tax law, but this is the purview of qualified California Tax Consulting firms. They are familiar with California Tax Changes that could affect how much money your company owes in taxes, and can show you ways that you can begin planning now in order to take advantage of credits for which your California-based company may qualify. It is important to keep up with California Tax Changes in order to save on your company taxes, and this is why CEOs often turn to CPA firms for help with this important area, freeing the business owners to concentrate on what they do best, namely, running their companies.

Your certified public accountant can inform you of 2010 Tax Changes that could affect your company’s bottom line. You will undoubtedly want to take advantage of the many state and federal hiring credits that are available to California-based corporations, particularly those located in one of the state’s forty-two EZ zones. If you hire individuals that qualify, your company may receive credit of up to $13,000 per employee annually, and also qualify for additional federal hiring credits. These qualified employees need to meet certain criteria, which can include being a member of the disabled veterans, Native American or Pacific Islanders, ex-felon, summer youth hires and other youth hires groups, or who have recently been laid off from work or threatened with layoff, or who qualify for state assistance such as food stamps or SSI. Other business benefits are available when you install pollution-control equipment at your place of business, or when you purchase energy-efficient hybrid vehicles for your company transportation, all of which can result in substantial credits to your California corporation.