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CrossFit – What Is in It for You?

At the very least it would give my girlfriends a good giggle over our next champagne catchup! You see the idea of me in a gym is like water and oil, they just don’t mix. I seem to lack the main two criteria of being allowed to set foot in a gym, fitness and co-ordination. But I am determined to see what all the fuss is about for myself and before I can talk myself out of it, I find the least threatening CrossFit gym in Sydney and I book in a consultation.

The first thing I noticed when I arrive for my appointment was the absence of those long rows of clunky cardio machines and menacing weight stations. I breathe a small sigh of relief, just the sight of those contraptions fills me with fear (flashback to an unfortunate incident involving me and a treadmill that I am yet to recover from). Let’s just say I do not have the necessary machinery skills to operate a toaster some days let alone operate the dashboard of what looks to me like an aeroplane navigation system. So I was pleased to see laid out on a huge black meat before me some basic pieces of fitness equipment that didn’t look like they could cause me an injury. The instructor who was showing me around went on to explain that the concept of CrossFit is simple, workouts are based on core,

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functional movements that are performed at the highest possible intensity.

This varies with each individual and the key to its success is its adaptability to everyone from an elite athlete to an office worker who hasn’t seen the inside of a gym for years. Programs are carefully designed with variety in mind so people don’t get bored, and all exercises are scaled to suit the various fitness levels in the class.

So I began a basic body weight movement workout with a coach and I was surprised to learn to go through some of the basics that I had been doing them wrong all this time. This was dangerous because it was risking injury and limiting any potential to see successful results. I also found myself having fun, something I never thought I would say I had at a gym.

A few other people like me who were curious enough to put their foot in the door that day and attend the same Beginners Class were all yelling out words of encouragement to each other and we all felt a common bond by the end. There’s a common theme I discovered the world of CrossFit, and that’s the real emphasis on building relationships within the group and forming your own community within. I felt a real sense of accomplishment as I walked away and felt like I wanted more. I had an understanding of why people were suddenly abandoning the traditional gyms where it felt so impersonal, in favour of being surrounded by people cheering you on to push yourself to your limits and celebrating your achievements with you reach your goals. Okay okay, I have seen enough – I get it. I want more and I am a CrossFit convert.

 

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Bollards – Providing Security, Safety, and Design Value

The prominence of bollards has dramatically increased during the past decade due to heightened concerns about security. They are a simple, practical, and cost-effective means of erecting anti-ram perimeter defense without creating a visual sense of a fortified bunker. Bollards are widely used for traffic direction and control, and in purely decorative applications. However, bollards can serve many functions beyond security. They can be used for purely aesthetic purposes, functioning as landscaping elements. Bollards can create visible boundaries of a property, or separate areas within sites. They can control traffic and are often arranged to permit pedestrian access while preventing entry of vehicles.

Removable and retractable bollards can allow different levels of access restriction for a variety of circumstances. They frequently tell us where we can and cannot drive, park, bike, or walk, protect us from crime, shield vehicles and property from accidents, and add aesthetic features to our building exteriors and surrounding areas. Bollards can incorporate other functions such as lighting, security cameras, bicycle parking or even seating. Decorative bollards are made in a variety of patterns to harmonize with a wide range of architectural styles. The prevalence of the most common form of security bollard, the concrete-filled steel pipe, has encouraged the manufacturing of decorative bollards designed to fit as covers over standard steel pipe sizes, adding pleasing form to the required function.

What Is A Bollard?
A bollard is a short vertical post. Early bollards were for mooring large ships at dock, and they are still in use todayhttps://www.tntmetalroof.com.  A typical marine bollard is produced in cast iron or steel and shaped somewhat like a mushroom; the enlarged top is designed to prevent mooring ropes from slipping off.

Today, the word bollard also describes a variety of structures used on streets, around buildings, and in landscaping. According to legend, the first street bollards were actually cannons – sometimes said to be captured enemy weapons – planted in the ground as boundary posts and town markers. When the supply of former cannons was used up, similarly shaped iron castings were made to fulfill the same functions. Bollards have since evolved into many varieties that are widely employed on roads, especially in urban areas, as well as outside supermarkets, restaurants, hotels, shops, government buildings and stadiums.

The most common type of bollard is fixed. The simplest is an unaesthetic steel post, about 914 to 1219 mm (36 to 48 in.) above-grade. Specially manufactured bollards include not only simple posts, but also a wide variety of decorative designs. Some feature square or rectangular cross-sections, but most are cylindrical, sometimes with a domed, angled, or flat cap. They come in a variety of metallic, painted, and durable powder coat finishes.

Removable bollards are used where the need to limit access or direct traffic changes occasionally. Both retractable and fold-down styles are employed where selective entry is frequently needed, and are designed so the bollard can be easily collapsed to ground level and quickly re-erected. Both retractable units may be manually operated or automated with hydraulic movements. Movable bollards are large, heavy objects – frequently stone or concrete – that rely on their weight rather than structural anchoring to stay in place. They are designed to be moved rarely, and then only with heavy machinery such as a fork-lift.

Bollards generally fall into three types of applications:

Decorative Bollards – decorative bollards for architectural and/or landscaping highlights;
Traffic and Safety Bollards – bollards that provide asset and pedestrian safety, as well as traffic direction; and
Security Bollards and Post Covers – decorative, impact-resistant bollard enhancements
Decorative Bollards

Some bollards are intended purely to be an ornament. As standalone architectural or landscaping features, they can border, divide, or define a space. They can also be accents, sentries, or supporting players to larger, more dramatic architectural gesture.

Decorative bollards are manufactured to harmonize with both traditional and contemporary architectural styles. The latter lean toward visual simplicity – often straight-sided posts with one or more reveals near the top. Styles made to match various historic periods usually have more elaborate shapes and surface details. These include flutes, bands, scrolls and other ornamentation.The post-top is a distinctive feature; traditional bollard design often includes elaborate decorative finials, whereas contemporary versions frequently feature a simple rounded or slanted top to deter passersby from leaving trash or using them for impromptu seating. On the other hand, they are sometimes made flat and broad specifically to encourage seating. Common decorative bollard materials include iron, aluminum, stainless steel, and concrete.

Ornamental designs with elaborate detail are frequently made of iron or aluminum casting. Aluminum bollards are desirable for applications where weight is an issue, such as a removable bollard. Aluminum units tend to be slightly more expensive than iron. For applications where a decorative bollard may be subject to destructive impact, ductile iron is a safer choice than more brittle metals, as force will deform the metal rather than shatter and transforming it into possible hazardous flying projectiles.

Iron and aluminum bollards are frequently manufactured by sand-casting – a traditional foundry technique that is economical and well-suited to objects this size. However, sand-cast objects frequently bear surface irregularities that tend to leave the finished product less appealing to the eye. If high-finish consistency is desired, seek a manufacturer that will machine 100% of the surface after casting to produce units with a uniform surface for maximum visual appeal.

Finish is an important consideration in a decorative bollard, from functional as well as aesthetic standpoints. Bollards are, by their nature, prone to being scratched or nicked by pedestrians and vehicles. Those located near roadways are exposed to a fairly aggressive environment; petrochemical residues and splashes of diluted road de-icing salts may compromise some painted finishes. Factory-applied powder coating – which is available on iron, aluminum, and steel – is an especially durable form of painted finish. The application process builds up a coating with very consistent coverage. During coating, any bare metal tends to attract the powder, eliminating pinholes in coverage. The baking process that completes the finish gives it additional toughness and abuse resistance.

In applications where greater physical abuse is predictable, decorative bollards made of aluminum may be a better choice than iron. If the finish coat is damaged, aluminum oxidizes to a color that is generally more acceptable than the red rust produced by iron. Aluminum and stainless steel are also available in a number of bare metal finishes. Functionality can be added to the otherwise decorative bollard. For example, common option is the chain eye – linking two or more bollards with chain, creating a simple traffic direction system. A large metal loop or arm on the side of the post allows parking and locking of bicycles, an increasingly popular choice as more people seek alternative green transportation. Bollards may also contain lighting units or security devices, such as motion sensors or cameras.

Traffic and Safety Bollards

The most common bollard applications are traffic direction and control, along with safety and security. The first function is achieved by the visual presence of the bollards, and to some extent by impact resistance, although, in these applications visual deterrence is the primary function. Safety and security applications depend on higher levels of impact resistance. The major difference between the two is safety designs are concerned with stopping accidental breach of a defined space, whereas security is about stopping intentional ramming.

Closely spaced lines of bollards can form a traffic filter, separating motor vehicles from pedestrians and bicycles. Placing the posts with 1 m (3 ft) of clearance between them, for example

 

 

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Key Benefits of Using Corrugated Steel Roofing

There are various types of roofing materials to choose from for your house, and one of the most common among them is the corrugated steel roofing. This is actually the traditional type that was widely used in most houses and buildings in the past. However, when newer technology was developed, more roofing types were introduced in the market, thereby giving home owners better flexibility on their choices nowadays compared to the available options in the past.

Despite the abundance of choices on different types of roofing materials with various styles, steel-type corrugated metal roofing still provides several advantages over the other types of roofing. One of its main advantages is cheaper in cost. Considering that this type of roofing is just plain and simple corrugated metal sheets without much style, this is by far the cheapest material that is at the same time durable enough to withstand even under harsh weather condition.

Obviously, another key benefit of using corrugated steel roofing is durability. Being made of strong metal sheets, it provides complete protection for the house even under extremely hot weather and heavy rains. Hence, building occupants underneath this type of roofing can have peace of mind during bad weathers due to its utmost reliability.

The materials used are steel roofing plates that are both heat-resistant and fireproof. Thus, it is one of the strongest materials in the roofing industry thereby ensuring optimum protection and safety for the building occupants. Many people usually associate      https://www.abpmetalsheet.com steel, iron, and tin materials with rust. However in this case, these roofing sheets are also rustproof to ensure durability and long-lasting use. In fact, its average life span is 50 years. Therefore, this type of metal roofing is replaceable if properly maintained.

Its anti-rust properties are made possible with the presence of zinc in its composition. Galvanized corrugated steel sheets are usually mixed and coated with zinc on its outer layer. Zinc prevents water from coming into contact with the steel material in order to prevent rust. Therefore, its entire composition is actually a mixture of both zinc and metal for maximum durability.

Another distinct advantage is higher flexibility on choices of color for the roofing. Most corrugated roofing sheets are available in their natural silver color. Hence, buyers can directly purchase these materials without bothering on its colors because it can be decided later on during the purchase of paints. On top of that, home owners can easily customize their roofing design and colors. They can opt for various color combination on the roofing and even print some signs and creative designs on it.

Additionally, each entire sheet of metal roofing is light in weight. This can significantly help in reducing the total load weight of the roofing. As a result, it requires lesser foundation requirements compared to fancy heavy-weight roofing materials.

Therefore, when choosing for the right type of roofing materials to install on your home, it is best to weigh in your options by looking at some of the advantages and disadvantages of each type of materials for roofing. In the case of corrugated steel roofing, the information above can greatly help in deciding on whether this is ideal type at your end.

 

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Expanded Knowledge For a Metal Cutting Blade Job

There is no substitute for a metal cutting blade when you have to cut large metal sheets into more usable sizes. Choosing and applying the right cutting blade, along with proper maintenance results in a first-class job. In this article, we will show how following these easy-to-follow steps, your circular saw blades can cut metal sheet safely, cross cut accurately, make repetitive cuts easily. One may also discover that the expanded knowledge and on-the-job experience regarding the use of ductile iron blades have changed the way metal fabricators view the tool as well as uncovered expanding efficiencies gained through its use.

A saw made specifically for metal cutting to be used

Metal cutting saw blades are employed to    https://www.phetmetalsheet.com boost productivity. These ductile iron blades are simply best for professionals who cut common materials at almost every job site such as angle iron, sheet metal pipe, and steel plate found almost everywhere. Dedicated blades and saws engineered to perform the job are relatively new to the industry, so some fabricators may be unaware of the technology. Using a proper tool and a saw can bring in a loss of time and money. For high-end performance, it is recommended that a saw and a blade made specifically for metal cutting be used.

Choosing and Maintaining the Blade

There are several things to consider when purchasing metal cutting blades, the first of which is the application. Blades are designed for a specific material, such as aluminum, steel, or copper.

Blade Pitch and Design

The size of the work determines ductile blades pitch and design. The information is explicitly detailed on the packaging. In case of uncertainty, one can contact the company tech support.

Use Only Saw-Specific Metal Cutting Blade

It is highly recommended that a saw-specific metal cutting blade is employed for cutting through many structurals and solids. Although a circular saw blade is fairly versatile for several applications, it does have its limitations, and there are a number of applications mentioned on the packaging.

Preventing Premature Machine Wear

Buildup of materials on the cutting edge calls premature machine wear and attrition of the blade edge material. A professionally-built blade will avoid this buildup. One must specifically set the desired revolutions per minute (RPM) for metal cutting. It is important to note that a too high RPM for high cutting will lead to premature machine wear and attrition of the blade edge material. A slower speed will produce a clean and professional smooth cut.

Proper Application is Mandatory

Metal cutting blades should not be mounted on typical wood cutting saws. It is because the amount of torque developed during metal cutting could cause machine breakdown or result in operator injury or tool damage. The blade should be permitted to “spin up”, or get to full speed, before engaging the work. This allows the blade to work effectively and prevent tool damage.

Never use a dull blade

If the blade on a metal saw is too dull, it will place an unwanted strain on both the saw and the operator. A dull blade in a saw can be risky because of the additional force the operator must apply in order to make a cut. Moreover, it can also distort and damage the saw by overworking the motor.

One must buy a blade with the correct attributes for the work and saw. A metal cutting blade makes crosscuts safe, simple and accurate. Therefore, the next time you carry a project that involves cutting sheet metal, head to the hardware store and pick up a quality metal cutting blade that’s right for the task. The savings in time and frustration will more than make up for the cost of the new cutting blade.

 

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Beauty Of Gold Filled Chains

Gold filled chains are becoming the new trend amongst gold jewelry lovers. Since primeval times gold has been considered to be one of the most valuable and precious metal amongst all. It has always been a part of the jewelry wardrobes of the rich and affluent lot of society. With the progress of time gold became so expensive that the buyers had to start thinking twice before burning a big hole in their pockets.

It has been observed that in response to the fluctuation of the world economy the price of gold has been constantly rising making it out of the reach of people. This crisis led to the invention and usage of Para gold material such as gold plated and gold filled. These materials are not only cheaper than pure gold but are highly durable and suitable for daily wear too. This makes gold filled chains extremely popular  https://www.crmetalsheet.com amongst buyers for accessorizing or making various jewelry projects.

Gold filled chains are usually made by placing a solidified layer of base metal, mostly brass or copper, in between two layers of pure gold metal. The three layers are then heated together to give a perfectly blended formation to the resulting metal. The end product is then placed under a roller till it gets its desired thickness for the targeted jewelry project. This innovative technique gives birth to a highly suitable alternative for real gold metal. Where the base metal provides desired hardness to the material the gold layers give its luster, radiance and shine.

All gold filled chains can be identified by their special marking that says “GF”. However, in order to qualify for that certification the metal needs to meet some principal requirements such as the outer layer of gold metal must weigh minimum of 10 k which makes it approximately 1/20th or 5 percent of the total weight of the end product. Also, the gold must be perfectly fused to the base metal layer through a mechanical process that involves heating under high pressure.

As there is such a strict process followed to create fancy gold filled chain pieces the quality of this material is always of optimum level. There is special regulatory body that monitors its quality standards in order to prevent frauds. Thus, the buyers can always be assured about getting the best quality gold filled chains as claimed by the dealer. Besides this type, there is one more type of golf dilled chains available in the market that are made on a double clad gold filled sheet which possess half the thickness of gold on either sides. Although it is slightly more

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10 Signs You Need a Sight Test

Many people leave it far too long to get an eyesight test, because the signs that you may need to wear glasses or contact lenses often develop slowly, so people get used to their poor vision. It can come as quite a revelation, though, when they do wear glasses for the first time and they discover just how bad their eyesight has become.

If you have been wondering whether it might be time for an eye test, here are the main warning signs that you might need to start wearing eyeglasses or contact lenses.

Frequent headaches

There are many things that can cause headaches, including working for too long looking at a computer screen, but if the headaches have become a daily event for you, that could be a sign that you need an eyesight test. Headaches that are caused by poor eyesight usually happen after you have been concentrating on something for a long period of time. They usually start at the front of your head and then move along the sides of your head to your temples.

Blurry vision

Blurred vision and difficulty focussing on things can be an indication of a problem with your eyesight, but it could also be a sign of more serious problems as well. If you are experiencing blurred vision, you should make an appointment with an optician straight away.

Difficulty seeing at night

If you are finding more difficult to see in failing light or darkness than you used to, that too could be a sign that you need a sight test. You might simply have noticed that you tend to need a light switched on to read when the light is not particularly good.

You can see things at a distance

If you can’t see things at a distance very well, that could be an indication that you are near-sighted, which can easily be corrected with eyeglasses or contact lenses. The first signs of this might be that have difficulty reading road signs when you are driving or you need to move to the front row of a cinema to watch a film.

Your eyes feel strained or tired

If you keep rubbing your eyes because    Tempered Borosilicate Sight Glass they feel tired, that could be because you are straining your eyes to see things properly. This might manifest itself in your feeling generally tired when you have spent time concentrating on looking at anything, such as a computer screen or when you have been reading

You have to squint to see things

If you find yourself squinting a lot, that could be a sign that you need an eye examination. People squint, because it reduces the size of the pupils and that can help bring things into focus. While doing that may help for a while, the only real solution is probably to start wearing corrective lenses.

It takes a long time for your eyes to adjust to changes in light

How well the eyes adjust to changes in light is a good indication of the eye health. If bright lights dazzle you or it takes a long time for your eyes to adjust to the dark, it’s time to get your eyes checked out.

Holding books away from you to read them

As we get older, our eyesight weakens and many people need reading glasses when they get a bit older. One of the first signs that you may need eyeglasses to read is when you start holding books and newspapers away from you to read them.

Your eyes keep watering

If you find that your eyes keep watering for no apparent reason, then that is another sign that your eyesight is not as good as it could be.

You haven’t had an eye exam in a long time

If you haven’t had a sight test for a long time, then you might be suffering some of the above symptoms completely unnecessarily. It is recommended that adults get a sight test at least every two years, so if you haven’t had a sight test for longer than that, get yours

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The Foundation of Reggae Music

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What is a reggae “riddim?”

“Riddim” is the Jamaican Patois term for the instrumental “rhythm” track of a song, also known as the “groove” or the “beat”. Jamaican popular songs, and many other types of Caribbean music, are built on riddims.

Riddims usually consist of a prominent bass line and a particular unique drum pattern and are truly the backbone of dub, reggae, lovers’ rock, ragga, roots, dancehall, etc. Many riddims originate from a hit song and the riddim carries the name of the song, for example I-Wayne’s 2004 hit “Lava Ground” on the Lava Ground Riddim. Or, in some cases, the riddim takes the name of the most popular song recorded on it. For example, the Satta Massagana Riddim is named after The Abyssinians’ original song “Satta Massagana”.

Occasionally, an artiste will voice two completely different songs on the identical riddim. And it’s very common for different artistes to voice over the same riddims with different lyrics and different vocal styles, ranging from singing to toasting. For example, Jah Cure’s “Call On Me”, Gyptian’s “Butterfly”, and Tanya Stephens’ “Reminiscing” are all on 2009’s wonderful Good Love Riddim.  https://disaweronlinesatta.comThe success of a riddim is judged by how many artistes “juggle” it, or make their own vocal interpretations of it. Jamaican audiences will judge whether or not the tune is big and, if so, other artistes will write new lyrics to “ride the riddim”.

There can be more than a dozen popular current riddims, but there are usually only a few “hot” riddims at any given time. Artistes have to record over these hot riddims if they want a better shot at getting their songs played in the dancehalls or on the radio. https://disaweronlinesatta.com Many times a dance is even created in honor of the riddim, like Pepperse or Gully Creeper, or who can forget the world’s fastest man Usain Bolt’s victory dance, “Nah Linga”?!!

The riddims don’t always originate from reggae; some urban contemporary songs may become riddims as well. The instrumental of Ne-Yo’s “Miss Independent” has become a popular riddim; many dancehall artists have recorded songs using the track. Other songs have inspired riddims too, such as George Michael’s song “Faith,” which became a riddim of the same name, and R. Kelly’s “Snake,” which became the Baghdad Riddim.

Types of riddims

Riddims are African in origin and are generally one of three types. The oldest, the “classical” riddim, provides the instrumentals for dub, roots reggae and lovers’ rock (well known producers include Sly & Robbie). The “ragga” riddim backs (or used to back) raggamuffin and dancehall songs. And “digital” riddims (e.g., King Jammy’s Sleng Teng Riddim) are created with computers, synthesizers and drum machines; in other words, they are really electronic riddims.

The advent of technology changed the entire business. No longer do you need to pay for studio time and hire musicians! This opened up the business to a whole new generation of producers, musicians and performers. Today, most riddims backing dancehall and Soca are digital. Digital riddims, along with the global reach and popularity of dancehall, have also spawned the creation of more and more popular riddims outside Jamaica.

Versioning

“Versioning” is the term for recycling or rejuvenating old riddims using computers and samplers, and voicing over them with new artistes. Jamaica has been versioning since the 1960s. Some of these riddims are decades old, many of them coming out of Clement “Coxsone” Dodd’s renowned Kingston studio, Studio One. Some great riddims came out of Studio One in the ’60s and ’70s, and you will still hear them versioned in constant rotation by sound systems today.

Versioning can be controversial, however, because many of those who produced the original classic riddims never got paid for the riddims themselves. It would be nice to get some “royalties”!! But today’s artists argue that they’re inspired by these classics and paying respect by versioning and re-popularizing them. Many Jamaican producers rely heavily on versions although, in the past decade, we saw less of this practice with hundreds of creative new riddims being released.

The explosion of dancehall in recent years generated many great new riddims. But some are already being versioned as well. The Unfinished Business Riddim, popular in 2008, was a version of 1998’s hit Showtime Riddim. So it seems old riddims never die!

Producers

Of course, creating a new and original riddim is far more difficult than versioning an old one! Here are some of the best original riddim producers from the past & present: Black Chiney (sound system, DJ, producer), Bobby “Digital B” Dixon (producer), Clement “Coxsone” Dodd (producer, Studio One records), Donovan Germain (producer, Penthouse Studio), Joe Gibbs (producer), King Jammy (dub mixer, producer), King Tubby (dub mixer, producer 1960s-1980s), Duke Reid (producer, Treasure Isle records, dominated the 1960s), Sly and Robbie (producers, Taxi Records), Steely & Clevie (producers).

Two of the hottest young producers of the new millennium share a surname but are not related. Stephen “Di Genius” McGregor, son of veteran singer Freddie McGregor, can boast of one of my favorite dancehall riddims of recent years, the Tremor Riddim (2007), voiced by Mavado (“Amazing Grace”), Sean Paul (“Watch Them Roll”), and others. This talented musician’s riddims are so popular that more than a dozen people might voice over each of them.

The other young star producer is Kemar “Flava” McGregor, who is responsible for some of the hottest hits in recent years and, in my opinion, the very best roots reggae riddims to come out of Jamaica (or the world, for that matter) in years, for example: 2005’s Triumphant Riddim (Gyptian’s “Mama Don’t Cry”), 2007’s 83 Riddim (Richie Spice’s “Ah No Me Dat” & Queen Ifrica’s “Daddy”), and 2010’s Classic Riddim (Pressure’s “Thinking About You”, Duane Stephenson & Ras Shiloh’s “Soon As We Rise”), and Sweet Riddim (Etana’s “Happy Heart”, Beres Hammond’s “See You Again”, Ginjah’s “Prayer”). I love the wide mix of artistes voicing his riddims – veterans and novices alike – definitely something to appeal to everyone. These two producers are out in front of Jamaica’s current hitmakers!

For me, it’s the smooth reggae beats that get me grooving and swaying; for others it’s the hard bass lines they enjoy on the dancehall floor. No matter your preference, riddims are reggae music’s foundation! Enjoy!

 

 

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The Foundation of Reggae Music

the fast silver wolf
What is a reggae “riddim?”

“Riddim” is the Jamaican Patois term for the instrumental “rhythm” track of a song, also known as the “groove” or the “beat”. Jamaican popular songs, and many other types of Caribbean music, are built on riddims.

Riddims usually consist of a prominent bass line and a particular unique drum pattern and are truly the backbone of dub, reggae, lovers’ rock, ragga, roots, dancehall, etc. Many riddims originate from a hit song and the riddim carries the name of the song, for example I-Wayne’s 2004 hit “Lava Ground” on the Lava Ground Riddim. Or, in some cases, the riddim takes the name of the most popular song recorded on it. For example, the Satta Massagana Riddim is named after The Abyssinians’ original song “Satta Massagana”.

Occasionally, an artiste will voice two completely different songs on the identical riddim. And it’s very common for different artistes to voice over the same riddims with different lyrics and different vocal styles, ranging from singing to toasting. For example, Jah Cure’s “Call On Me”, Gyptian’s “Butterfly”, and Tanya Stephens’ “Reminiscing” are all on 2009’s wonderful Good Love Riddim https://satta-charts.com. The success of a riddim is judged by how many artistes “juggle” it, or make their own vocal interpretations of it. Jamaican audiences will judge whether or not the tune is big and, if so, other artistes will write new lyrics to “ride the riddim”.

There can be more than a dozen popular current riddims, but there are usually only a few “hot” riddims at any given time. Artistes have to record over these hot riddims if they want a better shot at getting their songs played in the dancehalls or on the radio. Many times a dance is even created in honor of the riddim, like Pepperseed, or Gully Creeper, or who can forget the world’s fastest man Usain Bolt’s victory dance, “Nah Linga”?!!

The riddims don’t always originate from reggae; some urban contemporary songs may become riddims as well. The instrumental of Ne-Yo’s “Miss Independent” has become a popular riddim; many dancehall artists have recorded songs using the track. Other songs have inspired riddims too, such as George Michael’s song “Faith,” which became a riddim of the same name, and R. Kelly’s “Snake,” which became the Baghdad Riddim.

Types of riddims

Riddims are African in origin and are generally one of three types. The oldest, the “classical” riddim, provides the instrumentals for dub, roots reggae and lovers’ rock (well known producers include Sly & Robbie). The “ragga” riddim backs (or used to back) raggamuffin and dancehall songs. And “digital” riddims (e.g., King Jammy’s Sleng Teng Riddim) are created with computers, synthesizers and drum machines; in other words, they are really electronic riddims.

The advent of technology changed the entire business. No longer do you need to pay for studio time and hire musicians! This opened up the business to a whole new generation of producers, musicians and performers. Today, most riddims backing dancehall and Soca are digital. Digital riddims, along with the global reach and popularity of dancehall, have also spawned the creation of more and more popular riddims outside Jamaica.

Versioning

“Versioning” is the term for recycling or rejuvenating old riddims using computers and samplers, and voicing over them with new artistes. Jamaica has been versioning since the 1960s. Some of these riddims are decades old, many of them coming out of Clement “Coxsone” Dodd’s renowned Kingston studio, Studio One. Some great riddims came out of Studio One in the ’60s and ’70s, and you will still hear them versioned in constant rotation by sound systems today.

Versioning can be controversial, however, because many of those who produced the original classic riddims never got paid for the riddims themselves. It would be nice to get some “royalties”!! But today’s artists argue that they’re inspired by these classics and paying respect by versioning and re-popularizing them. Many Jamaican producers rely heavily on versions although, in the past decade, we saw less of this practice with hundreds of creative new riddims being released.

The explosion of dancehall in recent years generated many great new riddims. But some are already being versioned as well. The Unfinished Business Riddim, popular in 2008, was a version of 1998’s hit Showtime Riddim. So it seems old riddims never die!

Producers

Of course, creating a new and original riddim is far more difficult than versioning an old one! Here are some of the best original riddim producers from the past & present: Black Chiney (sound system, DJ, producer), Bobby “Digital B” Dixon (producer), Clement “Coxsone” Dodd (producer, Studio One records), Donovan Germain (producer, Penthouse Studio), Joe Gibbs (producer), King Jammy (dub mixer, producer), King Tubby (dub mixer, producer 1960s-1980s), Duke Reid (producer, Treasure Isle records, dominated the 1960s), Sly and Robbie (producers, Taxi Records), Steely & Clevie (producers).

Two of the hottest young producers of the new millennium share a surname but are not related. Stephen “Di Genius” McGregor, son of veteran singer Freddie McGregor, can boast of one of my favorite dancehall riddims of recent years, the Tremor Riddim (2007), voiced by Mavado (“Amazing Grace”), Sean Paul (“Watch Them Roll”), and others. This talented musician’s riddims are so popular that more than a dozen people might voice over each of them.

The other young star producer is Kemar “Flava” McGregor, who is responsible for some of the hottest hits in recent years and, in my opinion, the very best roots reggae riddims to come out of Jamaica (or the world, for that matter) in years, for example: 2005’s Triumphant Riddim (Gyptian’s “Mama Don’t Cry”), 2007’s 83 Riddim (Richie Spice’s “Ah No Me Dat” & Queen Ifrica’s “Daddy”), and 2010’s Classic Riddim (Pressure’s “Thinking About You”, Duane Stephenson & Ras Shiloh’s “Soon As We Rise”), and Sweet Riddim (Etana’s “Happy Heart”, Beres Hammond’s “See You Again”, Ginjah’s “Prayer”). I love the wide mix of artistes voicing his riddims – veterans and novices alike – definitely something to appeal to everyone. These two producers are out in front of Jamaica’s current hitmakers!

For me, it’s the smooth reggae beats that get me grooving and swaying; for others it’s the hard bass lines they enjoy on the dancehall floor. No matter your preference, riddims are reggae music’s foundation! Enjoy!

 

 

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The Foundation of Reggae Music

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What is a reggae “riddim?”

“Riddim” is the Jamaican Patois term for the instrumental “rhythm” track of a song, also known as the “groove” or the “beat”. Jamaican popular songs, and many other types of Caribbean music, are built on riddims.

Riddims usually consist of a prominent bass line and a particular unique drum pattern and are truly the backbone of dub, reggae, lovers’ rock, ragga, roots, dancehall, etc. Many riddims originate from a hit song and the riddim carries the name of the song, for example I-Wayne’s 2004 hit “Lava Ground” on the Lava Ground Riddim. Or, in some cases, the riddim takes the name of the most popular song recorded on it. For example, the Satta Massagana Riddim is named after The Abyssinians’ original song “Satta Massagana”.

Occasionally, an artiste will voice two completely different songs on the identical riddim. And it’s very common for different artistes to voice over the same riddims with different lyrics and different vocal styles, ranging from singing to toasting. For example, Jah Cure’s “Call On Me”, Gyptian’s “Butterfly”, and Tanya Stephens’ “Reminiscing” are all on 2009’s wonderful Good Love Riddim. The success of a riddim is judged by how many artistes “juggle” it, or make their own vocal interpretations of it. Jamaican audiences will judge whether or not the tune is big and, if so, other artistes will write new lyrics to “ride the riddim”.

There can be more than a dozen popular current riddims, but there are usually only a few “hot” riddims at any given time. Artistes have to record over these hot riddims if they want a better shot at getting their songs played in the dancehalls or on the radio. Many times a dance is even created in honor of the riddim, like Pepperseed, or Gully Creeper, or who can forget the world’s fastest man Usain Bolt’s victory dance, “Nah Linga”?!!

The riddims don’t always originate from reggae; some urban contemporary songs may become riddims as well. The instrumental of Ne-Yo’s “Miss Independent” has become a popular riddim; many dancehall artists have recorded songs using the track. Other songs have inspired riddims too, such as George Michael’s song “Faith,” which became a riddim of the same name, and R. Kelly’s “Snake,” which became the Baghdad Riddim.

Types of riddims

Riddims are African in origin and are generally one of three types. The oldest, the “classical” riddim, provides the instrumentals for dub, roots reggae and lovers’ https://delhi-satta-king.com rock (well known producers include Sly & Robbie). The “ragga” riddim backs (or used to back) raggamuffin and dancehall songs. And “digital” riddims (e.g., King Jammy’s Sleng Teng Riddim) are created with computers, synthesizers and drum machines; in other words, they are really electronic riddims.

The advent of technology changed the entire business. No longer do you need to pay for studio time and hire musicians! This opened up the business to a whole new generation of producers, musicians and performers. Today, most riddims backing dancehall and Soca are digital. Digital riddims, along with the global reach and popularity of dancehall, have also spawned the creation of more and more popular riddims outside Jamaica.

Versioning

“Versioning” is the term for recycling or rejuvenating old riddims using computers and samplers, and voicing over them with new artistes. Jamaica has been versioning since the 1960s. Some of these riddims are decades old, many of them coming out of Clement “Coxsone” Dodd’s renowned Kingston studio, Studio One. Some great riddims came out of Studio One in the ’60s and ’70s, and you will still hear them versioned in constant rotation by sound systems today.

Versioning can be controversial, however, because many of those who produced the original classic riddims never got paid for the riddims themselves. It would be nice to get some “royalties”!! But today’s artists argue that they’re inspired by these classics and paying respect by versioning and re-popularizing them. Many Jamaican producers rely heavily on versions although, in the past decade, we saw less of this practice with hundreds of creative new riddims being released.

The explosion of dancehall in recent years generated many great new riddims. But some are already being versioned as well. The Unfinished Business Riddim, popular in 2008, was a version of 1998’s hit Showtime Riddim. So it seems old riddims never die!

Producers

Of course, creating a new and original riddim is far more difficult than versioning an old one! Here are some of the best original riddim producers from the past & present: Black Chiney (sound system, DJ, producer), Bobby “Digital B” Dixon (producer), Clement “Coxsone” Dodd (producer, Studio One records), Donovan Germain (producer, Penthouse Studio), Joe Gibbs (producer), King Jammy (dub mixer, producer), King Tubby (dub mixer, producer 1960s-1980s), Duke Reid (producer, Treasure Isle records, dominated the 1960s), Sly and Robbie (producers, Taxi Records), Steely & Clevie (producers).

Two of the hottest young producers of the new millennium share a surname but are not related. Stephen “Di Genius” McGregor, son of veteran singer Freddie McGregor, can boast of one of my favorite dancehall riddims of recent years, the Tremor Riddim (2007), voiced by Mavado (“Amazing Grace”), Sean Paul (“Watch Them Roll”), and others. This talented musician’s riddims are so popular that more than a dozen people might voice over each of them.

The other young star producer is Kemar “Flava” McGregor, who is responsible for some of the hottest hits in recent years and, in my opinion, the very best roots reggae riddims to come out of Jamaica (or the world, for that matter) in years, for example: 2005’s Triumphant Riddim (Gyptian’s “Mama Don’t Cry”), 2007’s 83 Riddim (Richie Spice’s “Ah No Me Dat” & Queen Ifrica’s “Daddy”), and 2010’s Classic Riddim (Pressure’s “Thinking About You”, Duane Stephenson & Ras Shiloh’s “Soon As We Rise”), and Sweet Riddim (Etana’s “Happy Heart”, Beres Hammond’s “See You Again”, Ginjah’s “Prayer”). I love the wide mix of artistes voicing his riddims – veterans and novices alike – definitely something to appeal to everyone. These two producers are out in front of Jamaica’s current hitmakers!

For me, it’s the smooth reggae beats that get me grooving and swaying; for others it’s the hard bass lines they enjoy on the dancehall floor. No matter your preference, riddims are reggae music’s foundation! Enjoy!

 

 

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The Myth of Free Shipping and How Some Companies Can Offer It

Without a doubt, free shipping has become the boom or bust, make or break, must-have customer-based incentive for most, if not all, online retailers. On the one hand, it’s a surefire way to get customers to fill carts, complete checkouts and come back, time and time again, but on the other, when done ineffectively and without insight, free shipping can and will ruin an otherwise healthy business.

So how do some retailers get away with offering such an eye-opening incentive without dropping their profit?

That’s easy, they don’t.

But first, the numbers…

The Boom-Style Benefits of “Free Shipping”

Numerous studies have been conducted in the last five to ten years about consumer-based habits in regards to free shipping. One, carried out by the Wharton School  aayanhealth.com of Business in 2004, found that 52% of online shoppers abandoned their virtual shopping carts once they hit the shipping and handling portion of the process.

Another, more recent survey, performed by Forrester Consulting in Q3 of 2009, found that number to be closer to 44%.

Either way, on average, nearly 50% of would-be buyers visit a site, fill their carts and then throw it all away once they see the dollar signs rise in regards to the cost and care of getting it to their door.

When you take into account that some $38 billion – that’s billion with a b – was spent online in Q1 of 2011, and that already astronomical number will ultimately rise as e-commerce continues to explode, it’s easy to see just how much free shipping can effect you’re overall business model. (Not to mention that virtual mallrats, on average, spend 30% more, per order, when free shipping is included.)

So how is it done? Again, it isn’t. (Not like you think it is anyway.)

The Myth of Free Shipping

If you’re reading this as a shipper of goods, an online retailer or an e-commerce upstarter, you probably know by now that nothing in life is free, and that if it says it’s free on the front of the box, there’s undoubtedly a little asterisk next to it with a full deflating explanation on the back. Well, unfortunately, the same thing applies with free shipping.

Like the unicorn, the dragon and the loch ness monster, it’s all made up in the mind, or, more to the point, in the fiscal reports and marketing plan.

Offering outright no cost shipping – essentially eating the overall cost just to appease your customer base – often results in a busted business, or in the very least, a profit implosion. No, in order to offer the one thing nearly every online customer wants, you have to go all Wizard of Oz on the process and perform some ninja-style mental and mathematical gymnastics.

Here are a few “free shipping” strategies that many successful companies have employed to better their online business.

Free Shipping as a Marketing-Based Incentive. Without a doubt, shipping for free is a great way to get new customers in the virtual door and keep them coming back. That’s why so many retailers use it to their advantage and offer it to specific visitors, like first timers, long timers and those who’ve come across ads and emails offering their services. Because it’s so much easier to eat cost when it comes with a broader, more devoted customer base.

Building it into the Price. Arguably the sneakiest strategy of the lot, though still considered viable, many online retailers choose to go ahead and add the shipping and handling costs into the item itself, that way their customers aren’t “blindsided” right before their carts cross the finish line.

Bulk Orders Only. You see this on Amazon all the time – and nearly everywhere else. Spend such and such dollar amount and get free shipping. That’s because it works. According to a UPS report on Smarter Strategies for Free Shipping, they found that, “few retailers offered free shipping without a threshold, and nearly all reported that setting a minimum, often above the average transaction of a site, generally drove more units per transaction.”

“Free Shipping” Subscriptions. One of the more popular strategies out there right now is to offer a flat-rate fee, paid monthly or annually, for free shipping incentives. This is a great way to welcome loyal consumers to “the club” while recouping some of those high-priced delivery costs.

Flat-Rate Shipping. Last but not least, we come to the least free – and not nearly as effective – “free shipping” strategy, the flat rate. Yes, by offering a flat rate for all orders, you’ll encourage shoppers to buy more for less. On the other hand, if someone wants to buy one item, say for the first time while visiting your site, they might not like having to pay more than they usually would.

All in all, each incentive offers something of a solution to the necessary evil of e-commerce – a.k.a. “free shipping.” (And these are only but a few, as there are more out there – a la offering free shipping only a few time a year, like during peak seasons, or only making it available to a number of nearby states.)

Regardless, each business is different and the most viable strategy is the one that keeps profit margins high and the consumer.